That error can also be caused by a missing configuration file. Try starting the game directly from the '..\SteamApps\common\Divinity - Original Sin\Shipping\EoCApp.exe' program file by right clicking and running as administrator. Then change some sound or graphics settings, exit and restart.
Are you shutting down all non-essential programs (especially anti-virus) before starting the game?
Make sure your firewall isn't blocking access for the game (EoCApp.exe and SupportTool.exe both need access).
Try browsing to the '..\Documents\Larian Studios' folder and renaming the 'Divinity Original Sin' subfolder.
This folder contains the saved games, configuration files and a level cache folder. Deleting or renaming it will get the game to recreate it on startup; playing the game from a different Windows user account would effectively do the same thing.
If that doesn't help, please email firstname.lastname@example.org, with a description of the problem and the report.zip file generated by the D:OS support tool