You can think of it like this: you have three tokens each turn (four if you count reaction, but let's leave that aside for now).
The first token is your movement (which you have correctly identified as the orange bar on the right side of the character's paper doll). Usually characters can move up to 9m each turn.
The next token is the action token (the small green circle beneath the paper doll). This gets spent when you attack, cast a spell, or use one of the buttons with a brown background (Throw, Dash, Knock Unconscious and Help)
The last token is the bonus action tken (the small orange triangle beside the action's green circle). This get's spent when you cast some spells, drink potions, use scrolls or use one of the buttons with a blue background (Jump, Dip, Shove and Hide). Notice that Jump also requires you to have some speed left (the orange bar).
So, in your turn, you can move up to your speed, take an action (attack / brown skills / spell) and take a bonus action (some spells, blue skills, drink potion).